15 Million People Face Humanitarian Crisis Due to Drought in the Horn of Africa
A single tree bravely defies the parched, scorched earth in Northern Somalia, near the border with Ethiopia. The Horn of Africa is enduring a historic drought, creating an urgent humanitarian crisis impacting an estimated 15 million people in Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia.
Pastureland and waterpoints are drying up across the region, displacing pastoral and argicultural communities dependent upon livestock for their survival. Thousands of acres of crops have been destroyed and in Kenya alone, 1.4 million livestock died in the final part of last year due to the drought. Some parts of Somalia are enduring the worst water scarcity in 40 years.
IOM’s flow monitoring is recording increased drought-induced movements from Somalia into Ethiopia, with migrants likely seeking access to water and pasture. However, Ethiopia is also suffering the dire consequences of the drought. In southern and south-eastern Ethiopia, drought has eroded the livelihoods of at least 4 million pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities.
Tens of thousands of families are being forced to leave their homes in search of food, water, and pasture, heightening pressure on already-limited natural resources. Drought also increases the risk of inter-communal conflict, as farming communities and pastoralist communities compete for dwindling supplies of water.
IOM is working closely with governments, UN agencies and partners in each country to address acute water needs of internally displaced persons (IDPs), migrants and vulnerable groups to prevent a humanitarian disaster.
However, while IOM is actively responding, the needs are outpacing capacities due to limited resources. Additional funding is urgently needed to save lives and livelihoods, mitigate further displacement, and avoid greater needs in the future.
Haiti’s geography increases exposure to disasters such as tropical storms, hurricanes, and earthquakes. These disasters generate destruction of both infrastructure and agricultural areas. In addition to Haiti’s geographic characteristics, socio-political challenges have deteriorated the nation’s security and have caused both an increase in the urban population and in the irregular migration of Haitians in the region. Because of such factors, Haiti is considered the most vulnerable country in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the 18th most vulnerable country in the world (INFORM Index 2021).
On the morning of January 24, Haiti recorded two aftershocks of 5.6 and 5.4 increasing the death toll and number of those injured since the 7.2 magnitude Earthquake in August last year. Haiti is a nation deeply in need of international aid focused on sustainable recovery and disaster prevention.
IOM, together with both governmental and non-governmental partners, is committed to addressing immediate and long-term disaster and mobility-related challenges in Haiti by the root causes of irregular migration, reducing forced movement and the vulnerability of affected and at-risk population, building resilience to identified risks and mainstreaming migration in development agendas and policies.
In December 2021, IOM launched a Crisis Response Plan aiming to:
– Save lives and respond to needs through humanitarian assistance and protection
– Address the drivers and longer-term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
– Strengthen preparedness and reduce disaster risk
– Contribute to an Evidence-Based and Efficient Crisis Response System
Achieving these goals and aiding the recovery of the more than 310,000 people impacted by the most recent disasters requires around USD 87 million.
USA for IOM plays a critical role in mobilizing resources from individuals and the private sector in the United States to support IOM’s work around the world, and by doing so, aids thousands of vulnerable people, like Haitians, affected by disasters. You can read the full response plan HERE:
Last week, Maria Moreno, Head of USA for IOM Operations, met virtually with IOM’s Chief of Mission in Haiti, Giuseppe Loprete, to discuss IOM’s ongoing emergency response for survivors displaced by the earthquake in Haiti.
Their conversation marks 1-month since a 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit the southern region of the country. Haiti is one of the countries most prone to natural disasters in the world. As Chief of Mission, Loprete has worked to ensure that IOM, and our partners, are prepared to respond when disaster strikes and provide long-term recovery support for affected communities.
Day Zero Operations
Hurricane season in the Caribbean lasts from June to November, and IOM, along with its government and civil society partners, has developed extensive emergency response protocols for when disaster strikes.
This preparation allowed IOM to mobilize quickly. Within 24 hours, IOM had deployed its team to distribute shelter and hygiene kits, including tarps, blankets, and personal sanitation materials, to those displaced from their homes.
Lessons Learned from 2010
After the devasting 2010 earthquake, IOM and its implementing partners dedicated themselves to preparing for the next disaster.
Haiti developed a national Civil Protection Agency with an extensive network of field officers. This infrastructure allows Haiti to quickly coordinate with state and local bodies when an emergency occurs and has made the country a regional expert in disaster response.
Meanwhile, IOM has developed mechanisms to act as a first responder to potential displacement events. In Haiti, this includes regularly running emergency operation simulations and mapping shelters and other life-saving resources.
Another lesson learned from the 2010 earthquake was the importance of building and maintaining trust to humanitarian operations. For IOM, this begins with respecting local knowledge and systems already in place by the government, local associations, NGOs, and community leaders.
Without these partnerships, IOM would be unable to help those most vulnerable. Loprete explains the reach of IOM, saying, “we cannot stop where the paved road stops. We have to go beyond that. Once we reach those that we think are the most vulnerable, we usually get there and they say to us, ‘no, you have to go further, there are people over there who are worse off.”
Overlapping Crises Demand Urgent Action
Providing shelter is currently IOM’s top priority. Many still do not have a roof over their heads as their homes are being assessed for structural integrity.
IOM is working to avoid the prolonged displacement experienced in the wake of past disasters and is dedicated to supporting survivors throughout recovery efforts in the coming months and even years.
“Haiti is facing multiple crises,” reports Loprete, including a global pandemic, seasonal hurricanes, and institutional and political crises. He emphasized that this is a moment when we need everyone to come together to do more than recover but to build resilience to face the next crisis.
How to Make a Difference
IOM has already distributed 150,000 relief items to 61,000 families in Haiti. Currently, IOM is working to bring these materials the ‘last mile’ to those in the most remote regions who need them most. You can help by donating to organizations that are working with local partners to lead a sustainable recovery.
If you would like to support the work UN Migration, please donate here: https://usaforiom.org/fundraising-haiti/.
For more live updates on IOM’s work responding to global crises, tune in next month for more from USA for IOM’s new series, From the Field.